Causes and consequences of dysphagia
Common causes of dysphagia include stroke (stroke), brain injury brain tumor, spinal injury, head and neck cancer, emphysema, Parkinson's disease, senile dementia, multiple sclerosis, lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis Disease, radiotherapy patients, long-term intubation, etc. Among them, the high probability of stroke induces dysphagia, which is also the first cause of death and disability in China. In China, the number of strokes is getting heavier, the number of strokes is about 2.5 million/year, and the death of stroke is nearly 1.1 million/year. More than 11 million stroke patients in the country survive. Swallowing disorders occur in 30%-65% of patients with acute stroke. Dysphagia can cause great pain to patients, and short-term can lead to aspiration. 50% of them will develop into aspiration pneumonia, which will not only increase the length of hospital stay, but also cause life-threatening problems; long-term intake of patients will lead to dehydration and The occurrence of malnutrition; due to repeated coughing of eating water, patients are reluctant to eat with their families, causing great mental stress to the patients and causing psychosocial problems. About half of stroke patients are unable to recover their swallowing function within the first week after onset, resulting in dysphagia over a period of months or even after a stroke. In stroke patients who survived the acute phase, if there is persistent dysphagia, about 20% die of asphyxia in the first year and 37% have aspiration pneumonia. Among stroke patients with dysphagia, 48.3% started malnutrition a week later. Malnutrition can lead to poor physical fitness and reduced immunity, making it impossible to implement a limb function rehabilitation program. Dysphagia can cause patients to not drink or drink water, causing chronic dehydration. Wang Shaoshi, director of the Department of Neurology at the Shanghai First People's Hospital Branch, said: "Only 35% of our stroke patients actually die from stroke itself, and the rest are deaths caused by complications, including swallowing disorders. Because of swallowing Malnourished patients with malnutrition, dehydration, poor quality of life, and increased mortality. Therefore, the nutritional management of stroke patients in China is actually a big problem."
In addition, approximately 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease have dysphagia; if very mild dysphagia is involved, the incidence is as high as 95%. According to international statistics, the number of patients with Parkinson's disease in China has reached about 2.7 million, accounting for about 50% of the world's total. The number of new patients is more than 100,000 per year. At the same time, the current incidence of Parkinson's disease is younger, and there are many young Parkinson's patients who are younger than 40 years old. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the elderly over 65 years old in China is 1.7%. By 2030, the number of patients with Parkinson's disease in China will reach 5 million. The degree of dysphagia in patients with Parkinson's disease is directly proportional to the dyskinesia of the whole body. Early barriers are mild, but as the disease progresses, swallowing disorders become more serious.